Covid-19: No country for old men? Think again

By Max Herriman

“Isle of the Dead” by Swiss painter Arnold Böcklin, who created several versions of this theme starting at age 53 until his death at 73 in the year 1901

“That is no country for old men” – so begins Sailing to Byzantium, a moving poem by W.B. Yeats who grapples with realisation that his soul is trapped in a “dying animal.” It was written in 1926, when Yeats was around 60 years old; an age that some people now consider to be not worth saving from Covid-19, because if doing so it causes economic disruption.

Enough. There is a pernicious debasement of humanity and travesty of economics being pushed by people with a heart of stone arguing that the lives of older people are not worth the economic impact of social distancing. The eugenically convenient collateral death of others with immunodeficiency brought about by conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity, hypertension, tuberculosis, nutritional disease exacerbated by poverty and so on, are usually skipped in this narrative to focus on the decrepit, spent lives of seniors, especially those over 65 to 70 years old. These elderly people are assumed to be infirm, purportedly with nothing much more to offer or enjoy beyond the success of a completed jigsaw puzzle.

On May 7, the disturbing essence of this argument was captured by an Australian comedian, Wendy Harmer, who tweeted, “Look, I’m almost 65, child-bearing days over, no wisdom to impart, no longer useful to the economy… let’s just get this shit over with and leave me on a hillside to die and be pecked at by crows. PS: The number of Australians 65-plus is 3.8 million – 15 per cent of us.”

And one day later – also in a tweet – the nom de plume Dumb Blonde asked, “When do we start burning redundant old people for energy?” To which one wag jokingly observed that to do so is probably unethical because they would inevitably be classified as a “fossil fuel.”

“Taking a chance” on survival, for the sake America?

Dispiritingly, these evil ideas have even been spruiked by would-be elderly Covid-19 sacrificial offerings. On March 24, Dan Patrick, the 69-year-old lieutenant governour of Texas, told Tucker Carlson of Fox News, “You know, Tucker, no one reached out to me and said, ‘As a senior citizen, are you willing to take a chance on your survival in exchange for keeping the America that all America loves for your children and grandchildren?’”

Patrick continued, “And if that’s the exchange, I’m all in… That doesn’t make me noble or brave or anything like that,” he added, saying “I just think there are lots of grandparents out there in this country like me.”

Really? Lots of spaciously ensconced, wealthy, heads-of-state-government grandparents ready to “take a chance on survival”?

Herd immunity means the death sentence for too many, says Australia’s prime minister

More recently, 72-year-old Nobel laureate Michael Levitt, Professor of Structural Biology at the Stanford School of Medicine, joined this chorus. Professor Levitt, who is neither an epidemiologist nor economist, declared that Sweden is one of the “standout winners,” along with Germany, which has had 172,000 reported Covid-19 cases and 7,569 deaths. He argues that “The standout losers are countries like Austria, Australia and Israel that have actually had very strict lockdown but didn’t have many cases… They have damaged their economies, caused massive social damage, damaged the educational year of their children but did not obtain any herd immunity… This is a virus designed to get rid of the baby boomers. Quite frankly, I’ve had a great life… I’d much rather have young people than live for a very long time.”

On May 8, in response to Levitt, Andrew Probyn of ABC News pointed out that, “The leaders of Austria, Australia and Israel just happen to be members of the so-called ‘First Movers’ group, an eclectic bunch that also includes the leaders of Greece, Denmark, the Czech Republic and New Zealand; countries which have done a comparatively good job preventing Covid-19 deaths, losing about 1,900 people combined.”

Death numbers compared

He continues: “Sweden, which has chosen to be much less restrictive in its response compared to its Scandinavian neighbours and the rest of Europe, has been heralded by some commentators as the example to follow. It’s kept schools, shops and restaurants open and appealed to the public’s self-restraint with voluntary social-distancing measures. With a population of 10.2 million, Sweden has had 23,918 infections and 2,941 deaths, a third of which have been in nursing homes. Australia’s population is 25.7 million. It has had 6,875 infections and 97 deaths. If Australia followed Sweden’s trajectory, Covid-19 would have killed more than 7,000 people.”

Speaking to the National Press Club, Australia’s Treasurer Josh Frydenberg observed that “Sweden has 40 per cent of Australia’s population but 70 times the death rate. The numbers speak for themselves.”

To his credit, Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison argued that “Nobody’s got herd immunity. I mean the US with 1.36 million infections and more than 80,500 deaths hasn’t reached it, Sweden hasn’t reached it, the UK hasn’t reached it… You’ve got to get to about 60 per cent, two-thirds of your population. And even with all the death and devastation we’ve seen and all of those countries, they went nowhere near herd immunity and no one is going to reach that.” He added “That’s a death sentence, and that’s not something that Australia has ever contemplated.”

Should nature take its course for the benefit of younger generations?

So, shall we stop pretending that this is simply about allowing a cruel but inevitable force of nature take its course? Countries like New Zealand, Israel, Austria, Czech Republic, Greece, Denmark, Norway and Australia are showing that good policy and governance can save lives. In addition, as they are now the first to be opening schools, returning people to work and allowing social interaction, these countries are demonstrating that decisive and uncompromising action to save lives is also the best and fastest way to restore economic activity.

An age of fleeting pleasures with not much more to offer?

No, calls to sacrifice old people in the name of the economy mask deeply rooted intellectual laziness by those who grasp at discredited assumptions of neo-classical economics, small-government laissez faire capitalism, household analogies of public debt and a diabolical belief that elderly people are a societal indulgence that is best dispensed with when inconvenient. In short, they believe that the utility value of old people cannot justify the cost.

Viewed from the perspective of a person in their thirties, the age of 70 is unimaginably old. Septuagenarians, let alone octogenarians, are frequently assumed to have lost vitality and be simply trying to keep comfortable while they wait for death. Anyone over 60 is often considered to be in preparation for this phase, which is why they are mostly avoided in employment recruitment. Such misguided ageist prejudice is breathtakingly common. And now we see it in calls for society to “get back to normal” and accept the death of people who do not have much longer to live anyway.

However, according to the World Bank in 2019, the average lifespan of people living in Australia, France, Canada, New Zealand, Austria, Switzerland, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden and Norway is over 82 years, for those in Japan the figure is 84 years, while in the UK, Chile and much of Europe people live to over 80 years. The average lifespan in the US is 78.5 years. That’s a lot of years after 60 to be considered infirm and of lesser value.

Perhaps before we cast our seniors to the Volcano God in order to placate this pandemic, we would do well to remember that for hundreds of years, people well over 60 years of age have created some of our most sublime art; written much our most moving poetry, music and literature; articulated world-changing philosophy; done spectacular science and changed the course of history for many nations.

Timeless creations of the “elderly”

For example – and the examples are inexhaustible – in literature and art, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547-1616) would probably have died in obscurity and poverty had he not published Don Quixote at the age of 58 (Part 1) and 68 (Part 2). In our own time, the multiple prize-winning author of Schindler’s Ark (Booker Prize), Thomas Keneally, published his most recent novel The Dickens Boy only in March this year at the age of 84. Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) published his masterful novella The Death of Ivan Ilyich in 1886 at the age of 58 and completed the short novel Hadji Murad in 1894 when aged 66. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) is believed to have painted Mona Lisa between 1513 and 1517, when he was aged 61 to 65. And in 1547, at the age of 72, Michelangelo (1475-1564) took on the architectural design of St. Peter’s Basilica, creating a spectacular dome that is considered by many to be the epitome of Renaissance creation.

History shows that many great achievements in art and literature, politics, philosophy and science have been accomplished by people at advanced age

In music, Sergei Rachmaninoff wrote his Symphonic Dances (Opus 45) in 1940 at the age of 63. In 1903, at the age of 60, the Norwegian composer and pianist, Edvard Grieg (1843-1907), pushed the bounds of technology and made nine 78-rpm gramophone recordings of his piano music in Paris, which survive and are available in digital form today. And of course, in 2018 at the age of 76, the former Beatle, Sir Paul McCartney (b. 1942) released his album Egypt Station which became his first in 36 years to top the Billboard 200 and his first to debut at number one.

In 1921, Albert Einstein (1878-1955), received the Nobel Prize in physics; however, on July 9, 1955, aged 77, together with the philosopher Bertrand Russell, then aged 83, he signed the influential Russell–Einstein Manifesto, which highlighted the dangers posed by nuclear weapons and called for the peaceful resolution of international conflicts. This manifesto gave rise to the famous Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs that in turn won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1995 for work on nuclear disarmament. Indeed, Bertrand Russel won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1950 at the age of 78. In September 1961, at the age of 89, Russell took part in an anti-nuclear demonstration in London and was jailed for seven days for “breach of peace.”

In the field of politics, we might also note the nation-changing market economy reforms by Deng Xiaoping in 1978 when he was 74 years old. And few will forget the recent Prime Minister of Malaysia, Mahathir Mohamad, who won the 14th General Election in 2018 at the age of 93.

Seniors making stunning contributions

In science, Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) was 70 years old when he published his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), which – controversially for its time – argued that Earth was not the center of the universe and in fact orbited the Sun. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) developed his rabies vaccine in 1885 at the age of 63. In 2014,  Stephen L. Antczak reminded us in Next Avenue, “Consider these renowned scientists who are still making important contributions: David Attenborough (88), James Watson (86), Noam Chomsky (85), E.O. Wilson (85), Roger Penrose (82), Jane Goodall (80), Richard Dawkins (73), Stephen Hawking (72) and Neil deGrasse Tyson (55).”

An iconic active senior was the Catholic nun and now saint, Mother Mary Teresa (1910-1997). Mother Teresa was not above controversy; nevertheless, none would question her vitality and hard work as head of the Missionaries of Charity until the age of 87. Staying with religion, let us also remember the tireless advocacy work done today by the founder of the National Action Network, Reverend Al Sharpton (b. 1954), who remains active on radio and television across the US at age 65.

Captain Tom Moore walking his laps

And finally, not for want of further examples, consider a Covid-19 hero in the UK, Captain Tom Moore (b. 1920). Last month, just over three weeks before his 100th birthday, he set out to walk hundred laps in his garden with the hope of raising £1,000 in aid of NHS Charities Together. By the end of his birthday, he had raised £32.79 million. He also featured in a cover version of the song You’ll Never Walk Alone, which topped the UK music charts, making him the oldest person to achieve a UK number one hit and leaving Paul McCartney looking like a spring chicken.

This is not a list of exceptional seniors amongst a cohort that generally sit around waiting to die. A look at volunteer participation rates around the world shows a consistent picture of engaged and motivated older people. The Australian Bureau of Statistics reports that 35 per cent of volunteers across that country are aged between 65 and 74. More so, 95 per cent of Australian volunteers delivering meals to people who need support at home are aged over 50, with the average age of Meals on Wheels volunteers being in their early 70s. A recent report by the European Commission on volunteers in Finland said that “generally both younger people and older people participate and have roughly similar participation rates in volunteering… There is also evidence to suggest that older people are increasingly participating in voluntary activities as they are more active and enjoy better health than previous generations.” According to Statistics Canada, in 2013, 27 per cent of Canadians over the age of 75 undertook volunteer work with that percentage increasing to 38 per cent for those between 65 and 74 years old.

So, to those who argue that older people have less inherent value and do not warrant the economic disruption necessary to combat this nouveau coronavirus pandemic, perhaps now is the time to transcend a materialist, quantitative focus on the number of years remaining in a life and recognise that someone in their twilight can in a matter of minutes create eternal beauty; offer destiny-altering advice; show ferocious courage; illuminate a problem with fresh insight; provide a crucially important tender caress, correct tool or helping hand, and more, none of which is possibly done in decades by some other people. Let nobody ever say that ours “is no country for old men and women.”

Max Herriman is Southeast Asia Business Development Manager at AMOG Consulting Pty Ltd, and Senior Business Strategy Advisor to the international NGO Crops for the Future.

(As an Investvine contributor, Max Herriman’s opinions expressed are his own.)

By Max Herriman "Isle of the Dead" by Swiss painter Arnold Böcklin, who created several versions of this theme starting at age 53 until his death at 73 in the year 1901 “That is no country for old men” – so begins Sailing to Byzantium, a moving poem by W.B. Yeats who grapples with realisation that his soul is trapped in a “dying animal.” It was written in 1926, when Yeats was around 60 years old; an age that some people now consider to be not worth saving from Covid-19, because if doing so it causes economic disruption. Enough. There...

By Max Herriman

“Isle of the Dead” by Swiss painter Arnold Böcklin, who created several versions of this theme starting at age 53 until his death at 73 in the year 1901

“That is no country for old men” – so begins Sailing to Byzantium, a moving poem by W.B. Yeats who grapples with realisation that his soul is trapped in a “dying animal.” It was written in 1926, when Yeats was around 60 years old; an age that some people now consider to be not worth saving from Covid-19, because if doing so it causes economic disruption.

Enough. There is a pernicious debasement of humanity and travesty of economics being pushed by people with a heart of stone arguing that the lives of older people are not worth the economic impact of social distancing. The eugenically convenient collateral death of others with immunodeficiency brought about by conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity, hypertension, tuberculosis, nutritional disease exacerbated by poverty and so on, are usually skipped in this narrative to focus on the decrepit, spent lives of seniors, especially those over 65 to 70 years old. These elderly people are assumed to be infirm, purportedly with nothing much more to offer or enjoy beyond the success of a completed jigsaw puzzle.

On May 7, the disturbing essence of this argument was captured by an Australian comedian, Wendy Harmer, who tweeted, “Look, I’m almost 65, child-bearing days over, no wisdom to impart, no longer useful to the economy… let’s just get this shit over with and leave me on a hillside to die and be pecked at by crows. PS: The number of Australians 65-plus is 3.8 million – 15 per cent of us.”

And one day later – also in a tweet – the nom de plume Dumb Blonde asked, “When do we start burning redundant old people for energy?” To which one wag jokingly observed that to do so is probably unethical because they would inevitably be classified as a “fossil fuel.”

“Taking a chance” on survival, for the sake America?

Dispiritingly, these evil ideas have even been spruiked by would-be elderly Covid-19 sacrificial offerings. On March 24, Dan Patrick, the 69-year-old lieutenant governour of Texas, told Tucker Carlson of Fox News, “You know, Tucker, no one reached out to me and said, ‘As a senior citizen, are you willing to take a chance on your survival in exchange for keeping the America that all America loves for your children and grandchildren?’”

Patrick continued, “And if that’s the exchange, I’m all in… That doesn’t make me noble or brave or anything like that,” he added, saying “I just think there are lots of grandparents out there in this country like me.”

Really? Lots of spaciously ensconced, wealthy, heads-of-state-government grandparents ready to “take a chance on survival”?

Herd immunity means the death sentence for too many, says Australia’s prime minister

More recently, 72-year-old Nobel laureate Michael Levitt, Professor of Structural Biology at the Stanford School of Medicine, joined this chorus. Professor Levitt, who is neither an epidemiologist nor economist, declared that Sweden is one of the “standout winners,” along with Germany, which has had 172,000 reported Covid-19 cases and 7,569 deaths. He argues that “The standout losers are countries like Austria, Australia and Israel that have actually had very strict lockdown but didn’t have many cases… They have damaged their economies, caused massive social damage, damaged the educational year of their children but did not obtain any herd immunity… This is a virus designed to get rid of the baby boomers. Quite frankly, I’ve had a great life… I’d much rather have young people than live for a very long time.”

On May 8, in response to Levitt, Andrew Probyn of ABC News pointed out that, “The leaders of Austria, Australia and Israel just happen to be members of the so-called ‘First Movers’ group, an eclectic bunch that also includes the leaders of Greece, Denmark, the Czech Republic and New Zealand; countries which have done a comparatively good job preventing Covid-19 deaths, losing about 1,900 people combined.”

Death numbers compared

He continues: “Sweden, which has chosen to be much less restrictive in its response compared to its Scandinavian neighbours and the rest of Europe, has been heralded by some commentators as the example to follow. It’s kept schools, shops and restaurants open and appealed to the public’s self-restraint with voluntary social-distancing measures. With a population of 10.2 million, Sweden has had 23,918 infections and 2,941 deaths, a third of which have been in nursing homes. Australia’s population is 25.7 million. It has had 6,875 infections and 97 deaths. If Australia followed Sweden’s trajectory, Covid-19 would have killed more than 7,000 people.”

Speaking to the National Press Club, Australia’s Treasurer Josh Frydenberg observed that “Sweden has 40 per cent of Australia’s population but 70 times the death rate. The numbers speak for themselves.”

To his credit, Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison argued that “Nobody’s got herd immunity. I mean the US with 1.36 million infections and more than 80,500 deaths hasn’t reached it, Sweden hasn’t reached it, the UK hasn’t reached it… You’ve got to get to about 60 per cent, two-thirds of your population. And even with all the death and devastation we’ve seen and all of those countries, they went nowhere near herd immunity and no one is going to reach that.” He added “That’s a death sentence, and that’s not something that Australia has ever contemplated.”

Should nature take its course for the benefit of younger generations?

So, shall we stop pretending that this is simply about allowing a cruel but inevitable force of nature take its course? Countries like New Zealand, Israel, Austria, Czech Republic, Greece, Denmark, Norway and Australia are showing that good policy and governance can save lives. In addition, as they are now the first to be opening schools, returning people to work and allowing social interaction, these countries are demonstrating that decisive and uncompromising action to save lives is also the best and fastest way to restore economic activity.

An age of fleeting pleasures with not much more to offer?

No, calls to sacrifice old people in the name of the economy mask deeply rooted intellectual laziness by those who grasp at discredited assumptions of neo-classical economics, small-government laissez faire capitalism, household analogies of public debt and a diabolical belief that elderly people are a societal indulgence that is best dispensed with when inconvenient. In short, they believe that the utility value of old people cannot justify the cost.

Viewed from the perspective of a person in their thirties, the age of 70 is unimaginably old. Septuagenarians, let alone octogenarians, are frequently assumed to have lost vitality and be simply trying to keep comfortable while they wait for death. Anyone over 60 is often considered to be in preparation for this phase, which is why they are mostly avoided in employment recruitment. Such misguided ageist prejudice is breathtakingly common. And now we see it in calls for society to “get back to normal” and accept the death of people who do not have much longer to live anyway.

However, according to the World Bank in 2019, the average lifespan of people living in Australia, France, Canada, New Zealand, Austria, Switzerland, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden and Norway is over 82 years, for those in Japan the figure is 84 years, while in the UK, Chile and much of Europe people live to over 80 years. The average lifespan in the US is 78.5 years. That’s a lot of years after 60 to be considered infirm and of lesser value.

Perhaps before we cast our seniors to the Volcano God in order to placate this pandemic, we would do well to remember that for hundreds of years, people well over 60 years of age have created some of our most sublime art; written much our most moving poetry, music and literature; articulated world-changing philosophy; done spectacular science and changed the course of history for many nations.

Timeless creations of the “elderly”

For example – and the examples are inexhaustible – in literature and art, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547-1616) would probably have died in obscurity and poverty had he not published Don Quixote at the age of 58 (Part 1) and 68 (Part 2). In our own time, the multiple prize-winning author of Schindler’s Ark (Booker Prize), Thomas Keneally, published his most recent novel The Dickens Boy only in March this year at the age of 84. Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) published his masterful novella The Death of Ivan Ilyich in 1886 at the age of 58 and completed the short novel Hadji Murad in 1894 when aged 66. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) is believed to have painted Mona Lisa between 1513 and 1517, when he was aged 61 to 65. And in 1547, at the age of 72, Michelangelo (1475-1564) took on the architectural design of St. Peter’s Basilica, creating a spectacular dome that is considered by many to be the epitome of Renaissance creation.

History shows that many great achievements in art and literature, politics, philosophy and science have been accomplished by people at advanced age

In music, Sergei Rachmaninoff wrote his Symphonic Dances (Opus 45) in 1940 at the age of 63. In 1903, at the age of 60, the Norwegian composer and pianist, Edvard Grieg (1843-1907), pushed the bounds of technology and made nine 78-rpm gramophone recordings of his piano music in Paris, which survive and are available in digital form today. And of course, in 2018 at the age of 76, the former Beatle, Sir Paul McCartney (b. 1942) released his album Egypt Station which became his first in 36 years to top the Billboard 200 and his first to debut at number one.

In 1921, Albert Einstein (1878-1955), received the Nobel Prize in physics; however, on July 9, 1955, aged 77, together with the philosopher Bertrand Russell, then aged 83, he signed the influential Russell–Einstein Manifesto, which highlighted the dangers posed by nuclear weapons and called for the peaceful resolution of international conflicts. This manifesto gave rise to the famous Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs that in turn won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1995 for work on nuclear disarmament. Indeed, Bertrand Russel won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1950 at the age of 78. In September 1961, at the age of 89, Russell took part in an anti-nuclear demonstration in London and was jailed for seven days for “breach of peace.”

In the field of politics, we might also note the nation-changing market economy reforms by Deng Xiaoping in 1978 when he was 74 years old. And few will forget the recent Prime Minister of Malaysia, Mahathir Mohamad, who won the 14th General Election in 2018 at the age of 93.

Seniors making stunning contributions

In science, Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) was 70 years old when he published his book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), which – controversially for its time – argued that Earth was not the center of the universe and in fact orbited the Sun. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) developed his rabies vaccine in 1885 at the age of 63. In 2014,  Stephen L. Antczak reminded us in Next Avenue, “Consider these renowned scientists who are still making important contributions: David Attenborough (88), James Watson (86), Noam Chomsky (85), E.O. Wilson (85), Roger Penrose (82), Jane Goodall (80), Richard Dawkins (73), Stephen Hawking (72) and Neil deGrasse Tyson (55).”

An iconic active senior was the Catholic nun and now saint, Mother Mary Teresa (1910-1997). Mother Teresa was not above controversy; nevertheless, none would question her vitality and hard work as head of the Missionaries of Charity until the age of 87. Staying with religion, let us also remember the tireless advocacy work done today by the founder of the National Action Network, Reverend Al Sharpton (b. 1954), who remains active on radio and television across the US at age 65.

Captain Tom Moore walking his laps

And finally, not for want of further examples, consider a Covid-19 hero in the UK, Captain Tom Moore (b. 1920). Last month, just over three weeks before his 100th birthday, he set out to walk hundred laps in his garden with the hope of raising £1,000 in aid of NHS Charities Together. By the end of his birthday, he had raised £32.79 million. He also featured in a cover version of the song You’ll Never Walk Alone, which topped the UK music charts, making him the oldest person to achieve a UK number one hit and leaving Paul McCartney looking like a spring chicken.

This is not a list of exceptional seniors amongst a cohort that generally sit around waiting to die. A look at volunteer participation rates around the world shows a consistent picture of engaged and motivated older people. The Australian Bureau of Statistics reports that 35 per cent of volunteers across that country are aged between 65 and 74. More so, 95 per cent of Australian volunteers delivering meals to people who need support at home are aged over 50, with the average age of Meals on Wheels volunteers being in their early 70s. A recent report by the European Commission on volunteers in Finland said that “generally both younger people and older people participate and have roughly similar participation rates in volunteering… There is also evidence to suggest that older people are increasingly participating in voluntary activities as they are more active and enjoy better health than previous generations.” According to Statistics Canada, in 2013, 27 per cent of Canadians over the age of 75 undertook volunteer work with that percentage increasing to 38 per cent for those between 65 and 74 years old.

So, to those who argue that older people have less inherent value and do not warrant the economic disruption necessary to combat this nouveau coronavirus pandemic, perhaps now is the time to transcend a materialist, quantitative focus on the number of years remaining in a life and recognise that someone in their twilight can in a matter of minutes create eternal beauty; offer destiny-altering advice; show ferocious courage; illuminate a problem with fresh insight; provide a crucially important tender caress, correct tool or helping hand, and more, none of which is possibly done in decades by some other people. Let nobody ever say that ours “is no country for old men and women.”

Max Herriman is Southeast Asia Business Development Manager at AMOG Consulting Pty Ltd, and Senior Business Strategy Advisor to the international NGO Crops for the Future.

(As an Investvine contributor, Max Herriman’s opinions expressed are his own.)

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